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Miguel Camafort-Babkowski

University of Barcelona / Spain

Session Hypertension in HF
Lecture Title Efficacy of BP lowering drugs in HF treatment
Lecture
Introduction
Heart Failure is caused mainly by hypertension, directly or mediated by other diseases as ischemic cardiomyopathy, etc. Therefore, it is understandable that Heart failure treatment is mainly based on antihypertensive drugs. Nevertheless, although these drugs have shown its efficacy in some scenarios as Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there is a lot of questions that remain unanswered: How low should we go with BP levels? What about preserved ejection fraction? What about elderly and comorbid patients?
We will review the available evidence and try to answer these questions in this lecture. We will also present a project of Investigation endorsed by the KSH that will try to find some new answers.
Session Meet the expert session 1
Lecture Title Practical aspect of Intensive blood pressure lowering therapy
Lecture
Introduction
Based on the recent clinical data, we got new evidences proving the benefits of intensive BP lowering, even in high risk patients and elderly population. Therefore revised guidelines are recommending achieving a more intensive BP lowering, to lower BP goals. Intensive BP lowering seems to provide additional benefits, as a greater vascular protection than standard regimens, aiming at a BP goal below 140 mm Hg. The net absolute benefits of intensive blood pressure lowering in high-risk individuals are large. According to the results of clinical research, meta-analyses some guidelines as the Korean, Canadian, AHA/ ACC guidelines on hypertension, among the target systolic BP may change from less than 140/80 mm Hg to 130/80 mm Hg in any other international hypertension guidelines. However, this direction of intensive BP control is still controversial. Nevertheless, as many of these data come from the SPRINT trial or sub-studies, one thing that has become clear is that intensive pressure lowering, has to be based on a proper measurement of BP, preferably automated BP measurement. Another question that remains controversial is the “so called” J curve or U Curve in some populations, mostly depending on co-morbidities like Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Kidney Disease, previous cardiovascular ischemic disease, etc. In this lecture we will focus on practical aspects and recent evidence to be taken into account when it comes to BP intensive lowering in real World patients.
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Yook Chin Chia

Sunway University / Malaysia

Session Meet the expert session 2
Lecture Title Application of home BP in hypertension management
Lecture
Introduction
"Studies have shown that out of office blood pressure (BP) have many advantages. Home BP measurements (HBPM) allow many BP readings to be done versus a snapshot BP measured at the office/clinic. BP measured at home are better predictors of cardiovascular events than office BP. HBPM can also be used to detect white coat hypertension and importantly masked hypertension and this can help doctors manage their individual patient’s BP better. HBPM may empower patients to attain better control of BP, lead to better adherence to life-style changes and better adherence to anti-hypertensive medications. Furthermore, patients have greater satisfaction with their BP control when using HBPM. While control of BP is still based on office BP, HBPM can be used to complement and However, patients encounter many problems with the use of HBPM. Issues like performing the measurement correctly, when to measure, what to do with the readings obtained as well as doubt about the accuracy of the devices are some of the issues faced by patients. Health care professionals need to identify and address all these issues of HBPM if we intend to use out of office BP to improve management of hypertension for our patients. "
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JK Cruickshank

King’s College London / UK

Session Hypertension guidelines: Asian Pacific Perspectives
Lecture Title Controversies over Defining Hypertension and its Blood Pressure Targets: time for Arteries to step in
Lecture
Introduction
"This talk will address the difficulties of shifting cut-points on the distribution of blood pressure (BP) to define ‘hypertension’. The current and most obvious example it’s the recent American AHA/ACC guideline change from 140 down to 130 systolic, 90 to 80 mmHg diastolic. Those 10 mmHg are increase proportion defined as hypertensive from the mid-30% to some 49% of the adult population, where risk is often minimal.
We propose that measures of arterial function provide more precise and effective indications of risk in that BP range. Using various measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV) offers greater risk estimation above all other risk factors including BP. Evidence to this effect will be discussed."
Session Meet the expert session 4
Lecture Title Clinical applications of arterial function
Lecture
Introduction
This presentation will re-emphasise the substantial evidence independent of blood pressure (BP) for the prognostic power of arterial stiffness, particularly aortic and carotid pulse wave velocity (= PWV), which now renders PWV an intermediary outcome rather than just a risk factor. PWV can therefore be used both as a ‘risk-stratifier’ and, still potentially, a target for intervention. Clinicians can decide which method of measuring PWV they prefer, usually BP cuff-based or by tonometry, and apply it in their general vascular practice. Other indices such as central BP also generate useful extra data. The controversy generated by new American guidelines dropping the level of BP defining ‘hypertension’ to 130 or 80 mmHg allows clinicians to decide on patients most at risk by additional measurement (often simultaneous to the BP) of arterial function. For a given level of BP particularly in that range of 130-140 or 80-90 mmHg, patients with higher PWV are most at risk and likely to benefit from tighter methods of treatment. Deciding what treatment type will be best requires further randomised clinical trials using PWV as the target, adjusting the new achieved PWV for the change in BP. Researchers and clinicians now have the opportunity to work together to test out a whole variety of BP treatment combinations on this new target of PWV.
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Tunggul D Situmorang

Indonesian Society of Hypertension / Indonesia

Session KSH-INASH joint symposium
Lecture Title Hypertension in Indonesia: Epidemiology, Prevalence, Awareness and Treatment
Lecture
Introduction
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world with 18306 islands, and more than 265 million. More than half of the adult Indonesian population aged over 40 years are hypertensive but only a tiny fraction have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia.
Similar to other LMIC the burden of CVD in Indonesia has increased significantly in recent decades: CKD,Stroke, CHDs and hypertensive heart disease account for more than a third (0.5million) of all deaths in Indonesia with hypertension being one of the leading causes of mortality.
Based on The Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS-5), the prevalence of hypertension is 34.1 %. Prevalence in women overall is lower than National Prevalence. The awareness was low and treatment and control were very low. Substantial effort should be given to improve awareness about the condition and making provision for early diagnose, treatment as well as prevention. Increase awareness of hypertension in the population, provide better access to more effective blood pressure lowering regimens to a greater proportion of the population and promote population-wide reductions in adverse diet and lifestyle behaviors that are associated with obesity and higher blood pressure levels.
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Akira Fujiyoshi

Wakayama Medical Univeristy / Japan

Session Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the prevalence and management of hypertension
Lecture Title Socioeconomic status and prevalence, awareness, treatment, control rates of Hypertension in Japan
Lecture
Introduction
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010, conducted in 300 randomly selected areas across Japan, we performed cross-sectional analyses: association of socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent hypertension (N=2,623); with unawareness/no treatment of hypertension (1,282 hypertensive individuals); and with uncontrolled hypertension (720 patients on antihypertensives). SES was classified according to employment status, length of education, marital and living status, and household expenditure. The overall prevalent hypertension was 48.9%. Among hypertensive individuals, the proportions of unawareness and no treatment were 33.1 and 43.8%, respectively. Target blood pressure levels were not achieved in 61.2% of treated hypertensive patients. Hypertension was more prevalent in the unmarried and living-alone group than in the married group (odds ratio1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.26–2.44) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, exercise, history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, dietary intake of sodium and potassium. SES was not clearly associated with unawareness, no treatment, nor poorly controlled hypertension. Being unmarried and living alone was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. There was no clear association of SES with unaware, untreated, and uncontrolled hypertension.
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Feng J. He

Queen Mary University of London / UK

Session KSH-KNS Joint Symposium
Lecture Title Salt, blood pressure & cardiovascular disease 
Lecture
Introduction
The Global Burden of Disease study shows that high salt intake is a leading dietary risk factor, accounting for >3 million deaths and 70 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2017. The WHO has recommended a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈10 g/d to <5 g/d. Several cohort studies, however, suggested a J-shaped relationship, with both lower and higher salt intake being associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies have methodological problems, e.g. biased estimations of salt intake. Studies where salt intake was measured by the most accurate method of multiple non-consecutive 24-hour urine collections, demonstrates a direct linear association with CVD events and mortality, down to a level of 3 g/d. This provides further strong support for salt reduction. In developed countries, most of the salt in the diet is from processed foods. The UK has pioneered a successful programme by setting incremental targets for >85 categories of food; many other developed countries are following the UK’s lead. In developing countries where most of the salt is added by consumers, public-health campaigns have a major role. A reduction in population salt intake will lead to major improvements in public health and cost-savings.
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Kazuomi Kario

Jichi Medical University School of Medicine / Japan

Session Hypertension guidelines: Asian Pacific Perspectives
Lecture Title Hypertension Guidelines Debate: Japanese Perspective
Lecture
Introduction
Recently Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH) released new guidelines for the management of hypertension (JSH2019GLs) (Hypertens Res 2019, August issue). The key message of this guidelines is that the earlier and the lower blood pressure (BP) control throughout 24-hrs. The benefit of this key message should be greater on the Asian hypertensive patients than Western patients. The JSH2019Gls did not change the diagnostic threshold of hypertension (140/90 mmHg), but it made new “abnormal” classification of “elevated BP” (130-139/80-89 mmHg), which require the non-pharmacological treatment. On the other hands, the JSH2019Gls lowered the target threshold of BP control to 130/80 mmHg. Especially, JSH2019Gls strongly recommends home BP-guided approach, and target home BP levels is recommended to be lower <125/75 mmHg, if tolerable. The global expert panel also recommends the home BP for the for the individual management of hypertension in clinical practice (Kario, et al. Hypertension 2019, Emergence of Home Blood Pressure-Guided Management of Hypertension Based on Global Evidence). The compelling indication has been simplified based on the previous RCT evidences. The JSH2019Gls does not recommend the single pill combination (SPC) as the initial therapy, but immediate titration using SPC is recommended. We hope the new JSH2019Gls contribute to the management of hypertension in Asian counties.
Session Meet the expert session 3
Lecture Title Management of hypertension in very old patient
Lecture
Introduction
The 2017ACC/AHA guidelines used the same thresholds (130/80 mmHg) of the diagnosis of hypertension and target BP in the older patients aged >65 years, while the 2018ESH/ESC guidelines used the different BP thresholds of the initiation (160/90 mmHg) and target BPs (140/90 mmHg) of antihypertensive drugs in the very older patients aged >80 years. The JSH2019 guidelines recommend to initiate antihypertensive drug at >140/90 mmHg to achieve the target BP of 140/90mmHg in the very older patients aged >75 years (Hypertens Res 2019, August issue). Finally, if tolerable, strict BP control <130/80 mmHg could be achieved. This is affected by the “the lower the better” evidence of SPRINT study on the cardiovascular events even in the elderly patients >75 years. In addition, the subanalysis of the JHOP study and HONEST study demonstrated that the lower home BP is associated with lower incidence of stroke in the very elderly patients (Kawachi, Hoshide, Kario. Am J Hypertens 2018; 31:1190-1196; Saiti, Kario, et al. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018;40:407-413). Thus, if tolerable, the lower the BP control is now recommended even in the very elderly hypertensive patients, while the individualized approach considering the hypotensive episodes should be considered in the clinical practice.
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Norihiro Kato

National Center for Global Health and Medicine / Japan

Session Special Lecture
Lecture Title Genomics and precision medicine of hypertension and related vascular traits
Lecture
Introduction
As an approach to exploring susceptibility genes for multifactorial disease, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in earnest over the decade, although predominantly (>85%) in populations of European ancestry. As GWAS extend to non-European populations, it has become known that there exist non-negligible ethnic differences in not only genetic variation but also susceptibility to multifactorial disease. The progress in GWAS appears to differ considerably across cardio-metabolic phenotypes; the most prominent success has been achieved for GWAS of blood pressure or hypertension, by which a total of >1000 loci have been identified to date. Genetic impacts attributable to individual loci are modest in general; however, when combined, overall genetic susceptibility seems to exert appreciable influences on the classification of high-risk individuals in the general population. In this line, multi-locus profiles of genetic risk, namely “genetic risk score”, can be used to translate GWAS discoveries into tools for population health research, representing a big leap towards gene-based diagnostic tests for multifactorial disease. It will take a little more time until we can clarify the pathophysiology of hypertension and related vascular traits, e.g., detailed mechanisms underlying gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Precision medicine for multifactorial disease has now entered a new era.
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Younghoon Kwon

University of Virginia / USA

Session Blood Pressure Monitroing: Updates in blood pressure monitoring
Lecture Title Blood Pressure Monitoring in Sleep (Time to Wake Up)
Lecture
Introduction
A growing body of evidence suggests that ‘sleep’ blood pressure (BP) is an important determinant of cardiovascular outcomes. Non-dipping, extreme dipping or morning time BP surge all have been associated with adverse outcomes. Pathological sleep condition such as sleep apnea is associated with frequent BP surge and is highly prevalent in patients with non-dipping BP pattern. BP responses to such a pathological sleep condition is likely variable between individuals. Conventional 24 hour ambulatory BP monitoring technique includes ‘night time’ BP measurement but is limited by intermittent nature of BP measurement (which may not capture BP surges associated with sleep apnea) and its inability to differentiate ‘sleep’ from ‘awake” period. Continuous BP monitoring using novel non-cuff based BP monitoring technologies may enhance more accurate assessment of ‘night time’ BP. Addition of tools allowing sleep-awake differentiation as well as detecting sleep apnea events throughout sleep period may allow more meaningful characterization of ‘sleep’ BP.
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Jing Liu

Peking University People’s Hospital / China

Session Hypertension guidelines: Asian Pacific Perspectives
Lecture Title What is new in the 2018 Chinese Hypertension Guidelines?
Lecture
Introduction
2018 Chinese Hypertension Guidelines has been published in December 2019. Unlike the 2017 US hypertension guideline, the cut point on defining hypertension remained 140/90 mmHg. Similar recommendations on office and out-of-office blood pressure measurement, cardiovascular risk stratification, and hypertension-mediated organ damage examination as well as target blood pressures and treatment strategies have been introduced compared with 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines. A “moving” blood pressure targets were recommended in the new guidelines, that is, <140/90 mm Hg as an initial target for most of the patients and a further target of <130/80 mm Hg for those who can tolerate. Initial combination therapy with low dose antihypertensive agents can be considered in patients with a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, which is similar to the recommendations of the new US and European guidelines. There are some different recommendations in the Chinese Hypertension Guidelines that are mainly based on the research works, which have been performed since the late 1950s. For instance, several single pill combinations consisting of >3 antihypertensive agents (diuretics, reserpine, and hydralazine) and even sedatives in low dose were developed in the mid-1960s by Chinese scientists, and these agents without sedatives are still being used in some parts of China today. Besides, simple protocols are worked out for implicating guidelines to the primary care services and performing HEARTS (Healthy Lifestyle, Evidence-Based Treatment Protocols, Access to Essential Medicines and Technologies; Risk-Based Management, Team-Based Care and Task-Sharing, Systems of Monitoring) project proposed by the World Health Organization in several areas. Great efforts must be done to hit the target of 50% blood pressure control among people with hypertension by 2030 and 25% reduction of cardiovascular mortality by 2025.
Session Meet the expert session 2
Lecture Title Clinical application of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
Lecture
Introduction
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) has been widely used in diagnosis of hypertension and evaluation of the effects of blood pressure lowering agents or strategies. ABPM offers the ability to identify white-coat hypertension, as well as masked hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ABPM, or vice-versa. Additionally, readings of ABPM can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ABPM are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk.
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Empar Lurbe

University of Valencia / Spain

Session Pediatric hypertension guideline
Lecture Title European society of hypertension guidelines for high blood pressure in children and adolescents
Lecture
Introduction
Increasing prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents has become a significant public health issue driving a considerable amount of research. Aspects discussed in this document include advances in the definition of HTN in 16 year or older, clinical significance of isolated systolic HTN in youth, the importance of out of office and central blood pressure measurement, new risk factors for HTN, methods to assess vascular phenotypes, clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment strategies among others. The recommendations of the present document synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent the best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. In addition, as they call attention to the burden of HTN in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents.
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Luis M. Ruilope

Spain

Session Plenary Lecture
Lecture Title Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertension management
Lecture
Introduction
Guidelines devoted to management of arterial hypertension are based on blood pressure (BP) levels measured in the office. The reason is that these are the only validated blood pressure levels. However, in recent Guidelines the estimation of out-of-office BP is recognized as a technique of enormous interest for the future of adequate control of the risk factor that kills the highest number of subjects in the world.

Guidelines tells us what is better to do based on data obtained in big number of patients but when an individual patient is considered the measurement of office BP shows fake results in 30-40% of the patients. On the contrary, out of office BP gives us values valid for that particular patient and albeit data of follow-up are still lacking using the mix of home and ambulatory BP monitoring will allow us to obtain the most adequate control of blood pressure in our patients.
Session Meet the expert session 1
Lecture Title Diagnosis and treatment of masked and masked uncontrolled hypertension
Lecture
Introduction
Masked and Masked Unvontrolled Hypertension are two phenotypes diagnosed by the simultaneous finding of an adequately controlled blood pressure (BP) in the office and an elevated blood pressure measured out of the office (home or ambulatory BP). Both phenotypes are accompanied by a significant increase in cardiovascular risk and as a consequence require adequate treatment. The difference among the two phenotypes consist on the fact that masked hypertensives are untreated while masked uncontrolled are receiving antihypertensive therapy. Both phenotypes are prevalent and an adequate control of the risk accompanying arterial hypertension require an adequate treatment of patients presenting with these phenotypes.
• Which the adequate treatment? Guidelines tell us that masked hypertension requires antihypertensive drugs but there is no experience about initial treatment and follow-up. With respect to masked uncontrolled guidelines do not say a word. I assume that we should have to do two things first to investigate whether the patient is compliant in masked uncontrolled, otherwise could be masked and second if compliant add-on medication following European or American guidelines.
• Due to the fact that in both phenotypes sympathetic nervous system activity is clearly enhanced and that masked is off-medication, renal denervation should in my opinion be tested in these patients
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Nannette R. Rey

De La Salle Medical and Health Sciences Institute / Philippine

Session Hypertension guidelines: Asian Pacific Perspectives
Lecture Title Philippine perspectives in hypertension guidelines
Lecture
Introduction
The last two years have seen the publication of new Hypertension Guidelines from both the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2017 and the European Society of Cardiology in 2018. Both guidelines have significant revisions with the ACC/AHA guidelines focusing on the new hypertension classification making the 130-139/80-89 as the new Stage I hypertension from its previous classification as pre-hypertension. On the other hand, the ESC guidelines retained its previous BP classification with important focus on the need for early combination therapy even for Stage 1 hypertension and the importance of out of office BP monitoring. Both guidelines concur that BP targets should be a BP <130/90 instead of the previous 140/90 target. Countries in the Asia Pacific region have both adapted and made necessary adjustments with these recommendations based on the prevailing scenario in the locality. In the end, these guidelines and the corresponding local guidelines of each country focus and give emphasis on the need for tighter blood pressure control to delay the catastrophic sequelae of uncontrolled hypertension.
Session Meet the expert session 2
Lecture Title Management of young age hypertension
Lecture
Introduction
Hypertension remains the most prevalent risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. It is likewise generally an illness of the aging population with multiple risk factors that predispose its early onset. However, hypertension is not exclusive to adults and may also occur in the young population. Hypertension occurring in children and the young is essentially considered to be secondary unless proven otherwise. Secondary hypertension occurs in 5-10% of hypertension incidence in children, adolescents and the young adult population. Most common among causes of secondary hypertension in children and the young is due to kidney disease and hormonal imbalance. For the young adult population, other important causes would be drugs including cocaine or alcohol. However, a significant number of these children and young adults with hypertension are now being identified to be primary hypertension and most strongly correlated with lifestyle primarily from the diet and sedentary lifestyle. As primary hypertension incidence is increasing in the young population, a systematic approach is warranted to guide medical management and stronger measures to advocate healthy lifestyle is warranted.
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Yuda Turana

Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia / Indonesia

Session KSH-INASH joint symposium
Lecture Title Hypertension and dementia in Indonesia
Lecture
Introduction
"Indonesia is entering an era of an ageing population, with increasing life expectancy followed with an increasing number of elderlies. Based on Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) 2018, the most common noncommunicable disease found in older people is hypertension. Basic Health Research found that the prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia increased from 26.5% in 2013 to 34.1% in 2018. Dementia is a noncommunicable disease that has become a global burden, and Indonesia is no exception. According to the World Alzheimer Report in 2015, there are more than 1.000.000 people with dementia in Indonesia, and this number is expected to rise rapidly to almost 2.300.000 people by 2030. Currently, Indonesia has no countrywide data regarding dementia, but one study in Yogyakarta revealed that the prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia is about 22%. People with hypertension on the fifth decade have a 5-fold probability of having dementia by the seventh decade. The increase in risk occurs since hypertension is rarely isolated from other condition. About 80% of hypertension cases are accompanied by other ailments that impair the vascular system like dyslipidemia and diabetes. In hypertension, 'white matter lesion' and recurrent silent stroke can occur. A study by SurveyMeter showed that a 50% incidence of stroke is found in people with dementia. Vascular dementia is frequently found with cognitive dysfunction, especially in executive function (decision making) compared to memory function."
Session Meet expert session 5
Lecture Title Improving medication adherence in hypertensive patients
Lecture
Introduction
Low medication adherence in a patient with hypertension is a serious problem: about half of patient with hypertension have uncontrolled blood pressure and stopped their medication within one year, and about 10% of patient with hypertension missed their dose every day. The problem in drug adherence can happen on 3 phases: initiation (patient does not initiate treatment), implementation (patient delays, omits, or takes extra doses), or persistence (patient decides to stop medication after starting it). Female and younger patients are more likely to be nonadherent. Patients with poor understanding of their diseases and counterproductive health beliefs also decrease adherence. Drug adherence is also affected by the cognitive function and socioeconomic status of the patients. On drug-related factors, an increasing number of drugs taken will also decrease adherence. Drugs with known side effects are also more likely to be consumed irregularly. Other factors that are associated with adherence are a patient-prescriber relationship, access to medication, and social support on the patients. To increase medication adherence, a proven intervention can be implemented: better education from a health-care provider, mediated delivery of drugs, using prompts or cues for medication that are linked to daily routines, and decreasing regiment complexity. Implementing HBPM is also a known strategy to increase medication adherence and control blood pressure.
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Eugene Yang

University of Washington School of Medicine / USA

Session Hypertension guidelines: Asian Pacific Perspectives
Lecture Title Asian perspectives in hypertension and cardiovascular protection
Lecture
Introduction
Hypeftension is one of the key modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Recently, both American and European hypertension guidelines were updated and incorporated new clinicaltrial data to support lower blood pressure targets. ln the coming months, Japanese and Korean hypertension guidelines will be published. Common features as well as differences between Asian and AmericaniEuropean guidelines will be reviewed. Gaps in our knowledge about ASCVD risk among Asian subgroups and opportunities for future research will be highlighted.
Session Meet the expert session 3
Lecture Title Management of stage 1 hypertension by AHA guideline with risk factor clustering
Lecture
Introduction
"The 2017 ACC/AHA guideline for blood pressure management lowered the threshold for stage I hypertension to >130/80 mm Hg. In this presentation, we will review the recommendations for management of stage I hypertension with associated co-morbidities including stable ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and chronickidney disease. "
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